Mystery fish of the Smoky Hill Chalk
Copyright ?2000-2010 by Mike Everhart
Last updated 02/24/2010
LEFT: The skull of Martinichthys brevis (KUVP 497); it is the only known, reasonably complete skull of this genus.
|LEFT: An "as found" view of a small Martinichthys rostrum (FHSM VP-15561 / EPC 1993-02) that I discovered in Gove County, KS., in 1993. It appears quite possible that many of the rostra that are found represent the remains of a meal by a larger predator. Several Martinichthys rostra have been found with definite bite marks. (Scale = inches)|
|LEFT: The first known figure showing the rostrum of Martinichthys
ziphioides (Cope - AMNH FF 2131), originally published as Protosphyraena
ziphioides, by O. P. Hay in: On certain genera and species of North American
Cretaceous Actinopterous fishes, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History,
Vol. XIX, Figure 13, 1903. Although not quite as embarrassing as putting the head on the
wrong end of the plesiosaur, both Cope and Hay described the original specimen
'upside-down', with Cope calling it the "muzzle of an old individual [of the
primitive swordfish, Protosphyraena] which has lost a great deal of its apex by
attrition." The specimen was collected from the Smoky Hill Chalk of Gove County by
Charles H. Sternberg on June 9, 1877.
(Figure adapted from Hay, 1903)
|LEFT: The type specimen of Martinichthys brevis (KUVP 497) in the collection of the Natural History Museum of The University of Kansas, and the only known, reasonably complete skull of Martinichthys. This is the only known publication of a picture of this skull since it was first described and published with photographs in 1926 by C. E. McClung (A drawing of this skull was published by Taverne, 2000). Note that there are five vertebrae associated with the skull. (Scale = cm)|
|LEFT: The skull of the type specimens of Martinichthys ziphioides (KUVP 498) in the collection of the Natural History Museum of The University of Kansas. There are 21 vertebrae associated with this specimen. (Scale = cm)|
In 2003, Pam and I donated our entire collection (19 specimens) of Martinichthys
rostra to the Sternberg Museum of Natural History. Most of our specimens are shown below
with their new Sternberg (FHSM) number, and our original Everhart Paleontology Collection
|Dorsal and ventral views of two specimens: FHSM VP-15549 (EPC 1989-A) and FHSM VP-15553 (EPC 1990-16).|
|Dorsal and ventral views of seven specimens: FHSM VP-15558 (EPC 1991-27), FHSM VP-15557 (EPC 1991-14), FHSM VP-15562 (EPC 1995-21), FHSM VP-155561 (EPC 1993-02), FHSM VP-15552 (EPC 1989-33), FHSM VP-15550 (EPC 1989-11B) and FHSM VP -15556 (EPC 1990-59).|
|Dorsal and ventral views of 6 specimens: FHSM VP-15555 (EPC 1990-23), FHSM VP-15551 (EPC 1989-29), FHSM VP-15554 (EPC1990-25), FHSM VP 15563 (EPC 1995-40), FHSM VP-15559 (EPC 1992-10, mis-labeled as 1993-10) and FHSM VP-15560 (EPC 1992-35).|
|A pair of 2003 discoveries of Martinichthys from Gove County, Kansas. At left FHSM VP-15566 (EPC 2003-29) is the rostrum of a young M. ziphioides; at right, FHSM VP-15567 (EPC 2003-34) is the rostrum of a much older adult of M. brevis. Both of these specimens were found BELOW Marker Unit 3, making them the oldest examples of Martinichthys for which a stratigraphic horizon has been documented.|
|Two additional Martinichthys discoveries (2005) from Gove
LEFT: A fairly large M. ziphioides rostrum (Top = dorsal view; bottom = ventral view). This specimen also appears to be partially digested, leaving me to wonder if many or most of the remains we have found have been the remains of a meal... might explain why we don't find additional post-cranial material. Maybe Martinichthys tasted really good.
Right: A damaged but apparently bitten and partially digested Martinichthys rostrum.
|LEFT: My most recently collected specimen.. EPC 2009-01 (May,
2009)... from just below MU4 in southeastern Gove County. Like many others that I have
collected, it appears to be partially digested.
RIGHT: A shell coprolite collected from another locality in Gove County, discovered sitting on top of Marker Unit 5. Preservation is unusual in this case, in part because the coprolite was preserved sitting on the edge of an inoceramid shell. Note that the cross section shows nothing but ground up oyster (Pseudoperna) shells.
Other Oceans of Kansas webpages on Late Cretaceous fish:
Field Guide to Sharks and Bony Fish of the Smoky Hill Chalk
Kansas Shark Teeth
Cretoxyrhina and Squalicorax
Pycnodonts and Hadrodus
Saurodon and Saurocephalus
Cope, E. D., 1873. [On an extinct genus of saurodont fishes]. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 24;280-281. (meeting of Dec. 17, 1872) Wherein Cope names of the genus Erisichthe and describes Erisichthe (Protosphyraena) nitida). <EM>
Cope, E. D., 1877. On the genus Erisichthe. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. iii, article xx. pp. 821-823. (the description and naming of Erisichthe (Martinichthys) ziphioides)
Everhart, M. J. and P. A. Everhart, 1993. Notes on the biostratigraphy of the plethodid Martinichthys in the Smoky Hill Chalk (upper Cretaceous) of western Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, 12(Abstracts):36.
Everhart, M. J. and P. A. Everhart, 1994. Evidence of predation on the rare plethodid Martinichthys in the Smoky Hill Chalk (upper Cretaceous) of western Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, 13(Abstracts):36.
Hay, O. P., 1903. On certain genera and species of North American Cretaceous actinopterous fishes. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. XIX 1-95, pls. i-v, 72 text-figs.
McClung, C. E., 1926. Martinichthys, a new genus of Cretaceous fish from Kansas, with descriptions of six new species. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 65 no. 5, (suppl.) 20-26, 2 pls.
Taverne, L., 1999. R関ision du genre Martinichthys, poisson marin (Teleostei, Tselfatiirormes) du Cr閠ec?sup閞ior du Kansas (蓆ats-Unis). Geobios 33(2):211-222. (Revision of the genus Martinichthys, marine fish (Teleostei, Tselfatiiformes) from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas (United States))
Taverne, L. and Gayet, M. 2005. Phylogenetical relationships and palaeozoogeography of the marine Cretaceous Tselfatiiformes (Teleostei, Culpeocephala). Cymbium 29(1): 65-87 <LT>
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